To prevent misleading reports to management, investors, and banks by employees and owners of a company. An independent accountant can create internal control to ensure that the financials are accurate. By setting up internal control it help protects assets and ensures that the assets are being used for business operation only. Keeps the business information accurate. Finally to keep employees and management compliant to laws and regulations.
Creating internal controls also helps prevent fraud from employees and management. Documenting everything that related to a transaction is important to keep. You should always have a paper trail to prove that the transition occur when it seem that fraud is occur. It is wise to keep financials report for 7 years before discarding them.
To set up internal controls for a business you need to control the environment to make it harder to prevent fraud. Have procedures that separate the task of each department so that there is a check a balance. Monitor that the environment and procedures to ensure that there is no flaw that can create the opportunity to commit fraud.
The meaning of quantitative easing is a term use to describe a central bank action to put more money into the money supply of an economy.
Central bank are able to do this by using monetary policy to produce more money to go into circulation.
The increase of cash gives commercial banks the liquidity needed to supply money to individual or company as a loan.
Quantitative easing is a tool used to stimulate the economy when it start to slow down. This help the economy stop it decline in growth so that it does not go into a recession.
Central Banks usually use quantitative easing as a last resort when the change of interest fail to stimulate the economy.
One of the risk of using quantitative easing is that it can cause inflation. Since there is so much money in circulation. The value of the dollar can decrease, which, will decrease your purchasing power for items you want to buy.
Just-in-Time processing is a method used to produce products with high quality, low cost, and instant availability inventory. The method focuses on reducing time, cost, and removing poor quality products. The just-in-time are used by manufacturing companies that use raw materials to create a finished product.
The benefit of using Just-in-Time method reduces inventory, lead time, and setup time. It also improves product-oriented layouts, employee involvement, zero defects results, and supply chain management.
Reason why a company would change their manufacturing method is to increase their margins, increase productivity, and help them scale to produce more products dependent on demand.
Structuring is a method used to deposit large amount of cash into a bank account over time. Banks are required to notify the IRS when cash deposit is over $10,000.00.
It’s only illegal if you made the intent to deposit cash under $10,000.00 over a period of time to not get notice to be review for making large amount of cash deposit.
The purpose of this law is to stop illegal activities that make money and try to launder the money under companies that operate on a cash basis.
Example of companies that are cash basis instead of accrual are convenient stores, laundromats, or companies that decided to only handle cash transaction.
If your company get paid over $10,000.00 with one single payment. You will need to file for form 8300 to the IRS.
It is suggested to file form 8300 within 24 hours to the IRS to not get into a dispute of accusation for structuring.
The IRS can seize your money without arresting you, charging you, and being found not guiltily. Getting your money will be hard to get especially as a small business owner.
A shell company is structure as a legally business on paper to be seen legitimate even though there is no workers or job sites were business is conducted.
A shell company usually holds banking accounts or assets like investments and tangible assets. Most of the time a shell company is used to hold funds for anonymous entity.
The only reason a person would want to start a shell company is for startup that are raising funds before operation are implemented.
Shell Company are sometimes used to avoid taxes or hid assets from it true owners from the public, which, is illegal to do in some cases. It can also be used for money laundry for illegal schemes.
Bases Point is the amount of change in the hundredth of a number that has moving during a period of time.
For example, let’s say a stock started at 1.00% for the day and at the end of the day when the stock market close. The stock ended at 1.50%.
Someone could say that the stock move up 50 bases point for the day reference that it’s the hundredth of the number that change.
This term is usually used when talking about interest rate and financial lingo.
When your company has future operation that require purchases before the plan of operation is executed on the date that occurs in the month.
Putting in the prepaid expense on the balance sheet is the account you want to choose so it does not occurring in the month you purchase on the profit and lost statement.
Examples of transaction that would go into prepaid expense is:
When someone say that the number are in the black. It means that they have made a net profit in their income statement. This is what owner, managers, and investor would like to hear when they are talking about a company performance.
When someone say that the number are in the red. It means that they have made a net loss in their income statement. This is the opposite of black and is awful to hear when reports come out. This can be an issue that need to be address with spending and revenue.
Goodwill account is found on the balance sheet of a company because goodwill is considered an intangible asset. This means that money was spent to build a company reputation or its brand popularity. This happen when a company buys another company that is higher than the fair market value. The process usually happen when there is a merger and acquisitions between two companies.
FIFO stand for First In; First Out for and LIFO stand for Last in, FIrst Out.
The two are inventory process for handling material in storage before being sold.
For FIFO the material that is bought first for inventory is the first to be used or sold.
For LIFO the last material kept in inventory will be used or sold before material recently bought for inventory.
Direct Cash Flow statement uses the operating activities to project how much money a company will have at the end of certain period. Most cash flow statement are projected monthly, but can also be used on weekly or quarterly basis.
How direct cash flow statement work start with the beginning balance in the bank account. You record the money you received during the period in the cash in section. After you input your expenses in the cash paid out section.
The cash in and cash paid out is placed in the cash flow summary to show the forecast for how much money you will have later in the year.
This help to know if you will have money to keep running your business. The forecast show if your able to pay bills and meet payroll.
If you cash flow show it going negative in the ending balance. This is your sign that you won’t be able to pay bill and meet payroll. You need to bring in more money or cut cost to get yourself out of the negative in the ending balance section.
The numbers you use to forecast the money that is coming in and out later in the year comes from your budget that you set for the fiscal year. When your books are closed for the month. You will put in those numbers in current month to update the cash flow statement.
A trial balance report is a document you use to check against your balance sheet and profit and loss statement match.
The trial balance adds up all of your debits and credits that both should have the same total amount at the bottom line.
If your balance sheet or profit and loss statement doesn’t match the trial balance report. There was a transaction or journal entry that was entered incorrectly.
The trial balance is used at the end of the fiscal year when you are closing out reports to be finalize. They are also used by auditors when they look at your company books.
Benefits of running a trial balance report is that it keeps your records accurate and catch mistakes that were made during the operation year.
When mistakes are found. All you have to do is go back to that transaction and correct it with an adjusted journal entry.
IRA stands for Investment Retirement Account that you can use to save money for your retirement.
IRA are saving account like a 401k investment that you use from your saving to invest in the stock market to get gain capital on your money.
They are tax free until you cashed out after the age of 59 and half. If your take your money out before the requirement age. You will be penalize by 10% for the early withdraw.
The risk with an IRA account for the long term is that the percent of tax may be higher when withdrawing money. The opportunities may be that it also can be lower, but that depends on the interest rate set during the period of time set.
Some of the option you look to open investment account for an IRA account is:
• TD Ameritrade
• Charles Schwab
You should always do your own independent research before decided which companies you want to open IRA account. They are others firm that also provide IRA accounts in the market.
A money market account is a bank account that you can store your money like a saving accounts.
The difference between money market account and saving is that bank used money market account for short term loan.
Since the bank is using the money to give out short term loan. You get a higher interest rate than you do with a saving account.
You can always access your money like you do with a saving account.
Money market are not money market funds, which, can lose you money.
They are FDIC insured so there is protection of your money in case of economic crisis.
When human emotion come into play with budgeting for a new year. We can cause ourselves to make the budget to tight or loose. Also can create objectives that conflict with your goals that you are trying to achieve in the future.
When budget are set too tight. The goals are viewed unrealistic and unachievable, which, may cause discouragement. Setting a high goals is productive, but you don’t want to set it up to where you fail when setting a budget. Budget are meant to keep you in control of your future plans and strive to accomplish with the resources you have for the moment.
When budget are set too loose. The goals is attain easily creating the feeling of undesirable time wasted because it was not challenging and not satisfy with the time put in.
When goals conflict with you budget. It can become counter intuitive since your trying to achieve a goal in a different approach with your limited resources. For example, you decided to cut your car expense by using public transportation. Doing this will save you money on gas, insurance, and maintenance cost. The trade-off is that you have to be dependent on others for your transportation. It might take up more of your time to get the bus or train since you have to wake up earlier. There might be delays. Also you might need to attend meeting and other activities that are unplanned and might not make on time because of the schedule buses and trains have. If the results you are not getting for the change then you might to take another approach that will help achieve your goals from the budget you set up for yourself.
REITs are Real Estate Investment Trust that you can invest in to make capital gains.
They are companies that operate in the real estate business to make a profit.
Companies in REITs own commercial real estate like office buildings, apartments, and shopping center, etc.
REITs are traded on major stock exchange as ETF and function as a mutual.
Investing in these companies puts you in the real estate business without being a realtor and another way diversify your portfolio.
When a company losses its assets due to natural causes like firm storms in California, Hurricane Michael in Florida, and tornadoes that rip through the south and Midwest of the United States.
Any unexpected or accidental force generally can be deductible regardless if it’s a business or personal asset.
Having insurance for assets can help recoup the losses, but if insurance doesn’t cover your losses. You can deduct them on your taxes.
Also any other accidental losses that cannot be predicted can be written off. For example, Carpenter v. Commissioner Case or Revenue Ruling 79-174.
A dividend is money paid on a schedule basis by the company to its shareholder out of its earning made.
How to get a dividend is to have shares of stock of the company.
The process of how dividends get distribute start with the Board of Director deciding to issue dividends to its stockholder.
Insolvency is when a person or company can't meet their financial obligation to pay their bills on time.
When debt gets behind for the person or company; they would have likely had unforeseen expense, not handle cash properly, and made a mistake on cash flow projection.
When the person or company realize that bills will be past due. They have now became insolvent.
When this occur the best option to be upfront with your lenders and vendors of the situation.
It is better to be transparent with the people you do business with to keep goodwill in the relationship.
They can arrange a better way to adjust the debt to make it less of burden for you to pay off quickly in the long run. Short run they will have to wait to get paid.
Most people in business understand that hardship in finance happen. If you been paying bill consistently in the past. They will give you the time for you to turn your situation around to make payment on the debt.
Some might be reluctant, but will have to accept that cash will not be received any time soon.
Insolvency doesn't mean bankruptcy, but usually that is the path a person or company goes if the debt can't be paid off.
The operating cycle begins with spending cash and it ends with receiving cash from customers.
The following steps are:
1. Purchasing activity: buying product usually at a wholesale price and selling at retail price.
2. Receiving product and taking in inventory to put in the market.
3. Sales Activity: selling products to customers that are seeking products.
4. Recording the sale of the product and collecting cash.
The step are than repeated for the operating cycle of a merchandising business.
The operating cycling for retailers are usually shorter than manufactures because retailers product are ready to sale to customer.
Retailers have to better management of inventory so that they don't run out product. Making customers leave their business and go to another that sell the same thing. They don't want to hold a bunch of inventory, because it takes up space, which cost money, and restricting cash flow because product are being held on shelf; not producing income.
When the accounting period ends, some of the account balances in the ledger are reported in the financial statement without change. But there are accounts that required to be updated monthly, quarterly, or yearly depending on the nature of the transaction.
There four basic accounts that are require adjustment with journal entries:
1. Prepaid Expense: are advance payment of future expenses and are recorded as assets when cash is paid. It becomes expense over time or during normal operation.
2. Unearned Revenue: are advance receipt of future revenues and are recorded as liabilities when cash is received. Unearned revenue becomes earned revenue over time or during normal operations.
3. Accrued Revenue: are unrecorded revenues that have been earned and for which cash has yet to be received.
4. Accrued Expense: are unrecorded expenses that have been incurred and for which cash has yet to be paid.
Updating the account will keep the financial reports current with revenue and expenses during statement review.
A good way to make sure that all of the adjustment are done is by using the memorizing feature in QuickBooks. This helps make the process faster for adjustment and remind you of all the journal entries that need to be completed.
A W-9 form was created from the Internal Revenue Service to make it easier for them to keep track of income that a business is making for taxes.
The W-9 form is given to the person or organization that is paying you for your services.
The W-9 form includes:
The information from the W-9 form is enter into the client accounting system to issue you a payment for your services.
The W-9 Form also helps the client prepare 1099 form for taxes.
They are issue if your services are more than $600.00 for the fiscal year if you are independent contractor.
If they are less than $600.00 for the year, then you will not need to submit a 1099 to the IRS. Also 1099 form are excluded from corporation since they have different tax code.
A Mutual Fund is a investment program where a manager selects stocks, indexes, commodities, and currency that try to make money for their shareholders.
Some manager that run their mutual fund try to beat the market while other try to make a safe return on shareholders money.
According to The Statistics Portal; there is 9,356 mutual fund active in the Unites States.
Investing in a mutual fund helps diversify your portfolio by having a professional handle investments that they have experience in that you might not have in or need to spend time research in that company industry.
There are some risk in investments in mutual fund. For example, the manager might over trade in their account. Making commission fee high and shrinking your account balance. Also there are hidden fee that you might not be aware unless you investigate where cost are going.
Some website to research are:
Business entity concepts limits the economic data in an accounting system to data related to directly to the activities of the business. This makes the business be seen as an entity separate form its owners, creditors, or other business.
A business entity can be created in the following:
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